An atmosphere is a layer of gas or layers of gases that envelope a planet and is held in place by the gravity of the planetary body. A planet retains an atmosphere when the gravity is great and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. A stellar atmosphere is the outer region of a star, which includes the layers above the opaque photosphere; stars of low temperature might have outer atmospheres containing compound molecules.

The atmosphere of Earth is composed of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (0.9%), carbon dioxide (0.04%), and trace gases.

Spaceflight II

Spaceflight (or space flight) applies astronautics to fly spacecraft into or through outer space, either with or without humans on board. Most spaceflight is uncrewed and conducted mainly with spacecraft such as satellites in orbit around Earth and includes space probes for flights beyond Earth orbit. Such spaceflight operates either by telerobotic or autonomous control.