A month is a unit of time used with calendars, which is approximately as long as a natural period related to the motion of the Moon; month and Moon are cognates. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of moon phases; such months (lunations) are synodic months and last approximately 29.53 days. Researchers have deduced that people counted days in relation to the Moon's phases from excavated tally sticks as early as the Paleolithic age. Based on the Moon's orbital period concerning the Earth-Sun line, synodic months are still the basis of many calendars today and are used to divide the year.

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